Define torque as the turning moment of a force
  • Torque is defined as the rotating moment or turning effect of a force.
  • We can define torque mathematically as:
\begin{align} \tau = F \times d_\bot \end{align}


  • $\tau$ is the Torque ($Nm$)
  • $F$ is the Force applied ($N$)
  • $d_\bot$ is the perpendicular distance to the pivot of rotation from the applied force ($m$)
  • When the force acts at an angle, we can split it up into its relative horizontal and vertical components to find the effective or perpendicular force.
  • Hence, for the example to the right, Torque can be defined by:
\begin{align} \tau = F \times d \sin{\theta} \end{align}