Describe Galileo's analysis of projectile motion

Galileo Galilei was a scientist that proposed many things about projectile motion. He claimed that:

  • Projectile motion was consisted of both horizontal and vertical components.
    • He proposed that these components were:
      • independent of each other
      • occurred simultaneously
      • perpendicular to each other
  • Vertical acceleration was the same for all falling objects if air resistance is disregarded
    • This was equal to the gravitational acceleration of the planet ($9.8ms^{-2}$)
    • Attempted to prove this in a well known Leaning Tower of Pisa Experiment
  • Trajectory of a projectile is a parabola
    • This made analysis much easier as many mathematical developments were known for the parabola since the Ancient Greeks.
  • A motion of an object is relative to its frame of reference and an object has the motion of its intertial frame of refence.
    • He tested this in his Crow's Nest experiment
      • It was thought that, if a ship was moving at a constant speed, and a ball was dropped from the crows nest, it would fall behind the ship and into the sea as the ship would have moved.
      • Instead, it fell straight down onto the ship as if it hadn't moved.
      • This is explored later.