Stable/radioactive isotopes + types of radiation

In a stable isotope nucleus, the protons and neutrons are in a low energy level and are unable to emit radioactivity.
Radioactive isotopes emit radiation as they spontaneously release energy – radioactive decay.

Types of radiation:

Alpha particle (α) Beta particle (β) Gamma rays (γ)
AKA helium nucleus electron EMR
Charge +2 -1
Mass(AMU) 4 5*10-4 0
Penetration low - skin/paper/5cm air medium - 100cm air/5mm Al high - 5cm lead/1m concrete
Deflection magnetic/electric field magnetic/electric field
Ionising ability high low very low
Speed slow - 0.05c varied up to 0.99c c