The fermentation process
  • Enzymes – biological catalysts – convert any starch or sucrose into glucose and/or fructose, then other enzymes convert glucose/fructose to ethanol and CO2
  • C6H12O6(aq) => 2CO2(g) + 2C2H5OH(l)
  • Yeast dies at alcohol concentrations above 15%, so the liquid has to be distilled for higher alcohol contents
  • Suitable grain or fruit for fermentation must have a high content of starch/sugars[sucrose/glucose/fructose]
    • wheat/corn/barley/potato/grapes/apples
    • molasses – leftover syrup from sugar milling, otherwise a waste product [in N. QLD sugar industry much of the molasses is used for ethanol]