AC and DC Circuits

### Basics

#### Series and parallel circuits

- Consider the following image

**Voltage:**- In a
**series circuit,**the total voltage is the**sum**of all the voltages.- That is: $V_{output} = V_1+V_2+...$
- In the example, the voltage output would be 12V
- For a circuit with resistors in it, this means that the voltage drop across each resistor adds up to the supply voltage.

- In a
**parallel circuit,**the total voltage is**equal**to the voltage in any circuit.- That is: $V_{output} = V_1 = V_2 = ...$
- In the example, the voltage output would be 6V
- For a circuit with resistors in it, this means that the voltage drop across each resistor is equal to the supply voltage.

- In a
**Current**- In a
**series circuit,**the total current is**equal**to the current from one battery.- That is $I_{output} = I_1 = I_2 = ...$
- In the example, the output would be 20A
- For a circuit with resistors in it, this means that the same current flows through each resistor.

- In a
**parallel circuit,**the total current is the**sum**of all the currents.- That is: $I_{output} = I_1+I_2+...$
- In the example, the output would be 40A
- For a circuit with resistors in it, this means that the current flowing through each resistor adds up to the supply current.

- In a
**Resistance**- $R_{series} = R_1+R_2+R_3...$
- $\frac{1}{R_{parallel}} = \frac{1}{R_{1}} + \frac{1}{R_{2}} + \frac{1}{R_{3}} + ... + \frac{1}{R_{n}}$

#### Rectification

- This is the conversion of
**AC to DC** - For a
**Half-Wave**rectification, a**single diode**is used to block the**one direction**of the AC wavelength.

- For
**Full-Wave**rectification,**four diodes**are used to produce a current in a single direction.

* These four diodes are arranged as shown (This is known as a **bridge rectifier**):

page revision: 2, last edited: 07 Oct 2011 10:22