Environmental implications from the use of materials in civil structures
  • It should be noted that for most civil structures, some clearing of land is needed, which obviously affects the environment.
    • For Bridges, water flow may be affected.
  • The use of timber as fuel and a building material led to deforestation.
  • Stone had to be mined with large quarries. These often scarred the landscape and destroyed habitats for flora and fauna.
    • Bricks are made from clay, which also had to be mined
  • Cast and Wrought Iron also needed to be mined, but had to be smelted as well. This was the first case of fossil fuels being used in the transport and production of materials.
  • Steel is similar to cast iron but has had a much bigger impact as it could be used in many more industries.
    • In addition the production of steel also produces toxic chemicals.
  • Concrete requires many minerals to produce (up to 6 times more than steel).
    • It also requires a lot more water.